1. The seventeenth-century physicist Sir Isaac Newton is remembered chiefly for his treatises on motion and gravity. But Newton also conducted experiments secretly for many years abased on the arcane theories of alchemy, trying unsuccessfully to transmute common metals into gold and produce rejuvenating elixirs. If the alchemists of the seventeenth century had published the results of their experiments, chemistry in the eighteenth century would have been more advance than it actually was.
Which one of the following assumptions would allow the conclusion concerning eighteenth-century chemistry to be properly drawn?
A. Scientific progress is retarded by the reluctance of historians to acknowledge the failures of some of the great scientists.
B. Advances in science are hastened when reports of experiments, whether successful or not, are available for review by other scientists.
C. Newton’s work on motion and gravity would not have gained wide acceptance if the results of his work in alchemy had also been made public.
D. Increasing specialization within the sciences makes it difficult for scientists in one field to understand the principles of other fields.
E. The seventeenth-century alchemists could have achieved their goal only if their experiments had been subjected to public scrutiny.
2. Because of the recent transformation of the market, Quore, Inc., must increase the next two years, or it will certainly go bankrupt. In fact, however, Quore’s production structure is such that if a 10 percent productivity increase is possible, then a 20 percent increase is attainable.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must on the basis of them also be true?
A. It is only Quore’s production structure that makes it possible for Quore to survive the transformation of the market.
B. Quore will not go bankrupt if it achieves a productivity increase of 20 percent over the next two years.
C. If the market had not been transformed, Quore would have required no productivity increase in order to avoid bankruptcy.
D. Because of the transformation of the market, Quore will achieve a productivity increase of 10 percent over the next two years.
E. If a 20 percent productivity increase is unattainable for Quore, then it must go bankrupt.
①transformation of the market(A)→Q increase its production(B)
②Q not increase its production(非B)→Q will go bankrupt(C)
选项A的表述为：Q’s production structure→Q will not go bankrupt(非C)，无法从题干中推出。
选项B的表述为：Q increase production(B)→Q will not go bankrupt(非C)，为②的逆命题， 不成立(原命题与其逆否命题等价)。
选项C的表述为：market had not been transformed(非A)→Q will not need to increase its production(非B)，为①的逆命题， 不成立(原命题与其逆否命题等价)。
选项D的表述为：transformation of the market(A)→Q will achieve a productivity increase，无法从题干中推出。
选项E的表述为：Q not increase production(非B)→Q will go bankrupt(C)，与②一致。
3. Terry: If you want to get a decent job, you should go to college.
Mark: That is not true. There are other reasons to go to college than wanting to get a good job.
Mark’s response shows that he interpreted Terry’s remarks to mean that
A. college is one of many places to get trained for a job
B. decent jobs are obtained only by persons who have gone to college
C. wanting to get a decent job is the only reason for going to college
D. training for decent jobs is available only at colleges
E. all people who want decent jobs go to college
C. 取非的结果，本题的关键在于other reasons